Designed Parameters

The operation of the steam turbine should be at designed parameters of the steam (temperature and pressure) and the performance guarantees (output / efficiency) should also be based on the said parameters.
  • Designed steam temperature: 380 + 10-20 °C
  • Designed steam pressure: 1.27+0.2-0.19 MPa
  • Designed Output Capability: 7.5MW
  • Steam Consumption: 4.82 kg/kwh

Turbine: Sliding Pressure Operation

Steam Turbine may operate with sliding parameters. However steam consumption will increase resulting in the decreasing of Unit output and efficiency. Higher standards are required for materials and fabrication of the equipment. (e.g. Turbine model S7.5-1.27 )

Steam pressure condition when operating

The steam pressure of inlet of the turbine should be more than 0.995Mpa (absolute pressure) and the steam shall be superheated at least 50 °C more than the saturation temperature to ensure the steam is dry.

The relative curves:

The curve (figure 12) indicates the relation between inlet steam pressure and output of turbine.

Grate Cooler Aqc Boiler And High-Efficiency Ash Collector

  • Natural circulation and a large-diameter steam drum design are adopted, which is suitable for changes in the grate cooler's working condition
  • Vertical Installation – reduce required area
  • Low speed gas flow; low side-resistance and low wearing
  • Pre-assembled structure with expansion seal
  • Fin tube system is adopted, with durable and long lifetime pressure parts

Preheater Sp Boiler And High-Efficiency Ash Collector

  • Single boiler drum - natural circulation
  • Vertical installation – reduce required area
  • Heat gas passes generating surface vertically from top side to bottom
  • Low speed gas flow; low side-resistance on gas
  • Pre-assembled generating surface for ease of site installation gas and dust flow are in same direction
  • Knocking ash clearing device waste gas from pre-heater

Improvement Of Oxygen Removal Process

  • Oxygen removal by vacuum pump
  • Low heating steam consumption
  • Low erosion in water piping
  • High reliability for oxygen removal; stable & easy operation
  • Suitable for changing of boiler's work condition
  • More auxiliary power consumed: 50-75KW

Vacuum Oxygen Removal Process

  • Oxygen removed by Heating.
  • High efficiency of heat transfer with more compact body.
  • The temperature of exhaust gas of AQC boiler can be lower than 100 °C, if the system is operated optimally.
  • Mainly adopted in low-parameters' small WHR plants.
  • No Vacuum/Water Injection Pump.

Oxygen Removed By Heating

  • High efficiency of heat transfer with more compact body.
  • The temperature of exhaust gas of AQC boiler can be lower than 100°C, if the system is operated optimally.
  • Mainly adopted in low-parameters' small WHR plants.
  • No vacuum / Water injection pump.
  • Directly filling into low temperature economizer at WHR boiler of grate cooler with a condensation pump.
  • Add common super heater in waste heat recovery boiler system.
  • After heating temperature to 100° C - 108° C from 40° C, the water is transferred to the deaerator.

Power generation remains unchanged. But auxiliary power of 50-75KWH is saved.

Super Heater On WHR Boiler Of Preheater

Steam Temperature:

305°C - 310 °C (Waste gas temperature at the inlet: 320 °C)

At the outlet Steam are divided into two flows:

One flow goes to the main steam pipe and the other flow goes to the AQC boiler of the grate cooler.

Only One Opening At Grate Cooler For Suction Of Hot Air

Opening position moved towards the head of the grate cooler:

  • Temperature of air flow remaining: 390 °C - 480 °C.
  • Two openings require two fans which results in higher investment costs and a more complicated system.

Combined Superheating Technology

  • At normal condition, steam after superheating from SP boiler of Pre-heater does not go to the main steam pipe (valve is closed).
  • The saturated steam from the AQC boiler of grate cooler is superheated together with the superheated steam from the SP boiler of pre-heater.
  • Only one steam source for steam turbine: 15kg/cm2, 3500 Therefore optimal parameters are obtained for operation of steam turbine.
  • Even if operation of the clinker line is interrupted during startup of the cement production system and clinker is not available in the grate cooler (therefore no hot air), the steam produced by the WHR boiler of pre-heater can still be utilized for power generation.

The combined superheating technology

The control panel, the well automated WHR technology employs several distributed control systems

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South Africa