Project Returns

Major Factors Influencing Project Economics:

  • Size of a plant WHR steam cycle installations are typically more attractive for larger plants.
  • Capital cost of equipment and installation works.
  • Moisture content in raw material and design of pre-heating stages.
  • Industrial electricity tariffs.
  • Reliability of power supply.

Return On Investment

As discussed above, the kiln size, configuration and available heat (e.g., moisture content of raw feed) determine the applicable WHR technology and size. Project financial results are then driven by a few key factors:

  • WHR system design and installation costs.
  • Operating and maintenance costs (O & M), typically 2.5% of capital costs per year for steam systems and about half that for ORCs.
  • Operating hours, more hours are better for project economics. Typical values range from 7,200 hours per year to 7,800 hours per year.
  • Value displaced electricity; either purchased from the grid or avoided costs from a captive power plant. Purchased power prices vary widely 50 US$/MWh to over 150 US$/MWh depending on country and/or supplier.

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